Usprawiedliwienie nieobecności w sądzie

Niestawiennictwo w sądzie w istotny sposób wpływa na wydłużenie czasu trwania danego postępowania. Takie zachowanie, zarówno ze strony świadka czy strony, stanowi istotna blokadę dla sądu i uniemożliwia szybkie wydanie wyroku. Nic więc dziwnego, że nieobecność w sądzie może być usprawiedliwiona tylko konkretnymi okolicznościami. 

Kiedy stawiennictwo na rozprawie jest obowiązkowe?

W sądowym postępowaniu karnym biorą udział różne podmioty, wśród nich możemy odnaleźć oskarżonego, obrońcę, oskarżyciela, pokrzywdzonego oraz świadków. Każdy z nich ma inną rolę procesową związaną z odmiennymi obowiązkami i prawami. Cechą łączącą te podmioty jest jednak obowiązek stawiennictwa w sądzie na każde wezwanie.

Czasami zdarza się jednak, że z przyczyn losowych takich jak choroba, wypadek czy ważne zdarzenie rodzinne, dana osoba nie może pojawić się w sądzie o wyznaczonym czasie. To czy poniesie konsekwencje swojego niestawiennictwa, zależy w głównej mierze od tego, jakie usprawiedliwienie przedstawi w sądzie.

W przypadku pokrzywdzonego jego obecność podczas rozprawy nie jest obowiązkowa. Nie dotyczy to jednak sytuacji, w której będzie występował w charakterze świadka – wówczas musi pojawić się w sądzie. 

Bardzo podobnie jest w przypadku oskarżonego – nie musi pojawiać się na każdej wyznaczonej rozprawie. Jego obecność jest konieczna w zasadzie tylko wtedy, gdy będzie składał wyjaśnienia lub ustosunkowywał się do wyjaśnień złożonych wcześniej, w toku postępowania przygotowawczego. Na kolejnych etapach sprawy sądowej nie musi osobiście pojawiać się na sali rozpraw, chyba że wyrazi taką wolę.

Zupełnie inaczej wygląda kwestia stawiennictwa świadków – pozostają oni do pełnej dyspozycji sądu, a wcześniej prokuratora, aż do czasu oficjalnego zwolnienia ich z tego obowiązku. Pamiętajmy jednak, że pociągnięcie do odpowiedzialności świadka, który nie stawi się na wyznaczoną rozprawę będzie możliwe tylko wtedy, gdy o przesłuchaniu został prawidłowo zawiadomiony (listem poleconym).

Dlaczego stawiennictwo w sądzie jest ważne?

Obowiązkowe stawiennictwo w sądzie ma istotne znaczenie, szczególnie jeśli dotyczy świadków. Wpływa bowiem na całokształt sprawy i pozwala sądowi na wyciągnięcie prawidłowych wniosków, a przez to wydanie jak najbardziej sprawiedliwego wyroku. 

Art. 117 §2 Kodeksu postępowania karnego wprost określa, że czynności nie przeprowadza się, jeżeli osoba uprawniona nie stawiła się, a brak dowodu, że została o niej powiadomiona, oraz jeżeli zachodzi uzasadnione przypuszczenie, że niestawiennictwo wynikło z powodu przeszkód żywiołowych lub innych wyjątkowych przyczyn, a także wtedy, gdy osoba ta usprawiedliwiła należycie niestawiennictwo i wnosi o nieprzeprowadzanie czynności bez jej obecności, chyba że ustawa stanowi inaczej. Jak widać, niestawiennictwo skutecznie tamuje przebieg rozprawy, szczególnie jeśli jest niezawinione.

Konsekwencje niestawienia się w sądzie

Niestawiennictwo na wyznaczonej rozprawie niesie ze sobą poważne konsekwencje. Nieobecny naraża się w ten sposób na grzywnę do 3 000 zł. Jeśli taka kara nie przyniesienie oczekiwanego efektu i dalej będzie dochodziło do podobnych sytuacji, sąd ma możliwość przymusowego zatrzymania określonej osoby oraz doprowadzenie jej na salę rozpraw przez policję.

Oczywiście powyższe nie dotyczy sytuacji, w której dana osoba (najczęściej świadek) nie pojawia się na rozprawie z powodu usprawiedliwionych okoliczności, a więc takich na które nie miała tak naprawdę wpływu. 

Usprawiedliwienie do sądu

Obiektywnymi sytuacjami, które mogą usprawiedliwić nieobecność w sądzie są z pewnością choroba danej osoby, wypadek lub zdarzenia losowe takie jak katastrofy naturalne 

Pamiętajmy jednak, że usprawiedliwienie niestawiennictwa z powodu choroby oskarżonych, świadków, obrońców, pełnomocników i innych uczestników postępowania, których obecność była obowiązkowa lub którzy wnosili o dopuszczenie do czynności, będąc uprawnionymi do wzięcia w niej udziału, wymaga przedstawienia zaświadczenia potwierdzającego niemożność stawienia się na wezwanie lub zawiadomienie organu prowadzącego postępowanie, wystawionego przez lekarza sądowego.

W przypadku choroby bardzo ważne jest uzyskanie zaświadczenia wydanego przez lekarza sądowego. Najczęstszym błędem popełnianym w tym zakresie przez świadków jest przedkładanie zaświadczeń o od lekarzy rodzinnych lub lekarzy specjalistów. Przepisy KPK wyraźnie wskazują, że jedynym dokumentem, który może być zatwierdzony w takim przypadku jest zaświadczenie lekarza sądowego.

Co więcej, przedłożenie zaświadczenia lekarskiego stwierdzającego niezdolność do pracy nie jest wystarczające w celu usprawiedliwienia nieobecności na wezwanie sądu. W tym celu konieczne jest stwierdzenie przez uprawnionego lekarza, że wezwana osoba nie może stawić się w określonym dniu na wezwanie. Nie każda choroba uzasadnia usprawiedliwienie niestawiennictwa na wezwanie, ale taka tylko, która stanowi chorobę obłożną bądź wynikającą z nagłego i poważnego pogorszenia zdrowia, wymagającego niezwłocznego poddania się leczeniu szpitalnemu – tak orzekł Sąd Apelacyjny w Krakowie w postanowieniu z dnia 17 grudnia 2018 r. (sygn. akt II AKz 646/18).

Z kolei warunek usprawiedliwienia nieobecności oskarżonego na rozprawie poprzez przedłożenie sądowi zaświadczenia lekarskiego pochodzącego od lekarza sądowego aktualizuje się dopiero wówczas, gdy strona nie uprawdopodobni wystąpienia okoliczności niezależnych od oskarżonego, które uniemożliwiają usprawiedliwienie nieobecności zgodnie z wymogami stawianymi przez art. 117 §2a KPK.

Kto decyduje o usprawiedliwieniu nieobecności w sądzie?

Nieobecny powinien w miarę szybko przedstawić sądowi dokładny powód swojej nieobecności na wyznaczonej rozprawie. Jeśli ma taką możliwość, powinien zawiadomić o tym sąd odpowiednio wcześniej – np. gdy zachorował na kilka dni przed terminem rozprawy i wiadome jest, że taki stan potrwa dłuższy czas.

Decyzja o usprawiedliwieniu nieobecności uczestnika na rozprawie należy każdorazowo do sądu, który ma obowiązek badać, czy przedstawione usprawiedliwienie wskazuje na okoliczności rzeczywiście uniemożliwiające stronie stawienie się na rozprawę i udokumentowane w sposób nie budzący wątpliwości co do zaistnienia tych okoliczności. Dotyczy to oceny każdego podanego przez oskarżonego powodu, a zatem także choroby potwierdzonej zaświadczeniem lekarskim spełniającym wymogi określone w art. 117 § 2a KPK.

Jak usprawiedliwić swoją nieobecność na rozprawie?

Usprawiedliwienie nieobecności w sądzie powinno nastąpić w ciągu tygodnia od daty doręczenia postępowania w przedmiocie wymierzenia grzywny. Oczywiście można to zrobić znacznie wcześniej, jeszcze przed wymierzeniem takiej kary. 

W każdym przypadku konieczne jest sporządzenie stosownego pisma adresowanego do sądu zajmującego się daną sprawą. Oprócz stosownego uzasadnienia wyjaśniającego dokładną przyczynę nieobecności, należy dołączyć dowód potwierdzający nasze wyjaśnienia – najczęściej będzie to wspominane już wcześniej zaświadczenie lekarza sądowego. 

Co ciekawe nie każde zdarzenie losowe będzie wystarczające, aby uniknąć odpowiedzialności za niestawiennictwo. Potwierdził to Sąd Najwyższy w postanowieniu z dnia 22 marca 2012 r. (sygn. akt VI KZ 3/12) ,zgodnie z którym Postanowienie przepis art. 286 zdanie pierwsze KPK pozwala uchylić postanowienie o ukaraniu świadka w razie „dostatecznego usprawiedliwienia” niestawiennictwa. Za takie z pewnością nie można uznać pisma, w którym zobowiązany do stawiennictwa świadek informuje o defekcie swojego samochodu, chorobie dziecka, czy nadmiernym obłożeniu pracą.  

Podstawa prawna:

  • Art. 117, 286 KPK

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